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Pontil marks come in several different stylistic types with variation within the different styles.
Probably at least 95% of pontil scarred utilitarian bottles date to or before the Civil War era (1860-1865).
and shows a gaffer (with the blowpipe) at work with his "mold tender" boy (seated).
The mold boy would open and close the mold (at the base of the pipe behind the wash tub) as directed by the gaffer.
: At this point in the bottle dating key, diagnostic characteristics for mouth-blown bottles become less generally precise for dating all bottles and more bottle type specific.
For example, colorless glass prescription drug bottles have somewhat different diagnostic dating timelines than amber glass beer bottles in regards to the finish (Question #5) and base features (Question #6).
The caption to the photo is: "Blower and Mold Boy, Seneca Glass Works, Morgantown, W. Location: Morgantown, West Virginia."The large majority of mouth-blown bottles (probably at least 95%) date to or prior to the World War I era, i.e., ≤1915-1920, with at least 75% likely dating prior to 1900 (empirical estimate).
At least a few American glass companies were hand-blowing bottles into the mid-20th century (Toulouse 1971).
The primary features common to most mouth-blown bottles are addressed by Questions #4 through #7 which are listed below.In front of the gaffer in this image (to his right) is the chair where much work was done with blowpipe manipulation prior to lowering the parison into the mold.A second boy looks on with (possible) admiration of the gaffer as they were the highest paid and most elite workers on the glass factory floor and among the highest paid of all skilled laborers during the 19th century (Barnett 1926).There is a lot variety possible within each category of pontil marks.
Typical examples of the 3 major pontil types - glass-tipped or "open" pontil scar, iron or "improved" pontil scar, and sand (disk) pontil scar - are pictured to the right.It was also the position that glass factory boys aspired towards (Skrabec 2007).